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Kazan is one of the largest industrial and financial centers of Russia, and a leading city of the Volga economic region in construction and accumulated investment.
Total banking capital of Kazan banks is third in Russia. An innovative economy is represented by the largest IT-park in Russia which is one of the largest of its kind among Eastern Europe science parks.
In , city organisations and businesses attracted more than 87 billion rubles for economy and social sphere development.
In , businesses attracted 86 billion rubles. Most of them have been implemented in the real economy sector. Because of the unstable economic situation within the country, there was a decrease of investment rates in and—according to the statistics of the first part of the year—it composed There are head offices of six companies that are in the top in terms of revenues in Russia.
The total area of city business centres is thousand square metres. Innovative economy in Kazan is represented by the biggest IT-park in Russia and also the biggest technical park in Europe.
The only online platform for governmental trade except the Moscow one is operated in Kazan. During the post-Soviet period Kazan was the leader in terms of house construction in the Volga region, and now it holds the position and implements the Republican program of liquidation of dilapidated housing which was unique for Russia.
According to Forbes , Kazan was ranked 15th among the "Best cities for business in Russia" of The system includes seven self-service bicycle docking stations, and a total of bikes, distributed throughout the centre of Kazan, near the most popular city destinations.
The service is open to everyone from 16 years of age. To access the service, riders have to complete a simple sign-up procedure at www. The first 30 minutes of every journey is free of charge.
After the first half-hour, a service charge applies. Travel cards that work within the metropolitan area reduce the cost of travel to 15 rub on trolley buses and buses, and offer considerable discounts on the metro line.
These travel cards can be purchased from the post office. All 1, buses are colored red, as in London. A single trip costs 25 rub. Unlike in most Western cities, public bus routes are not municipal, but are operated by private companies.
Other buses are mostly Russian made NefAZ. All trams are dark red. LM, , All trolleybuses are green  Single trip costs 25 rub. A single-line Kazan Metro running north to south-east , opened on 27 August , the first and only metro system built in a post-soviet state after the collapse of the USSR.
As of , the Kazan Metro now has ten stations, and crosses the Kazanka River. The main railway station Kazan—Passazhirskaya is located in the city centre and includes a main building built in , a commuter trains terminal, a ticket office building and some other technical buildings.
The station serves 36 intercity trains and more than eight million passengers per annum. Kazan also has 19 platforms for commuter trains.
This station serves intercity ships and commuter boats. Pneumocushion boats are used in winter. Daily passenger turnover reaches six thousand.
There are also the R federal highway and "Northern Europe — Western China" in construction route near the city. There are five bridges across the Kazanka Qazansu river in the city, and one bridge connecting Kazan with the opposite bank of the Volga.
There are two bus stations in Kazan—Central and Southern. It is planned to build new stations in the East, West and North districts instead of Central for relieving city centre.
The airport is connected with the city by bus route 97 and by a suburban train line. There is also the Kazan Borisoglebskoye airfield, home to Kazan Aircraft Production Association , a major aircraft factory, famous in the past as "Aircraft Plant 22" "22nd Zavod".
Adjacent to it lies a huge aircraft engines plant "16th Zavod". It produces versions of Tupolev and aircraft.
In the past an Ilyushin, four-engine Russian mainliner, Tupolev "Black Jack" supersonic strategic bomber and TuM tactic bomber were also produced here.
The other ethnicities are Chuvash , Ukrainians , Azerbaijanis , Vietnamese ,    and Jews. The Tatar language is widely spoken in the city mainly by Tatars.
Russian language is also widely spoken, mainly by Russians. Dfb with long, cold winters colder than Moscow , and warm, often dry summers.
As a result of its far inland position, summers are extremely warm for its latitude and winters are quite cold compared to areas further west in Europe.
The warmest month is July with daily mean temperature near The city set its two hottest days on record during the Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves.
The city has a citadel Russian: From the inside, the northern side of the fortress to the Spasskaya Tower adjoined the gate to Spasskaya Church, which has now merged with the tower.
The typical Pskovian architectural elements of the facade face the main street of the Kremlin. At the end of the 17th century, instead of three tiers, the tower was built with two brick eight-sided tiers with a brick roof, getting its present, familiar appearance.
Until , the tower was crowned with the double-headed coat of arms of the Russian state. In the 18th century, a ringing clock was installed in the upper tier, and even earlier a large bell was moved from a small belfry now lost, located on the castle wall on the left side of the tower.
Until the middle of the 19th century, there was a moat with a stone bridge in front of the tower. The South-Western Tower was built simultaneously with the Spasskaya tower by Pskov masters and is a classic example of the Pskov style of defensive structures.
The name of the Transfiguration Tower comes from the Transfiguration Monastery of the Savior, which was fenced from the north-west. The tower was also built by Pskov architects Postnik and Barma, but it was significantly rebuilt later, as it has strong traces of the architectural influence of the Moscow defensive architecture.
The Tainitskaya Tower was built in its present form in the s by Postnik Yakovlev. It was named after a secret source from which it was possible to take water during a siege.
The entrance to the tower is in the form of a "knee", which increased the defense of the Kremlin. It replaced a tower from the time of the khanate, Nur Ali in Russian transcription Muraleeva.
The Consistor Tower was built in brick by Moscow architects in the 17th century, its name was given in the 18th century from the Spiritual Consistory located near the tower in the Kremlin.
Near the tower, archaeological excavations revealed the so-called Tezitsky Arabic for "merchant" Moat, which went from the Consistor Tower to the Transfiguration.
Central Kazan is divided into two districts by the Bolaq canal and Lake Qaban. An old legend says that in , before the Russian invasion, wealthy Tatars baylar hid gold and silver in Lake Qaban.
In the beginning of the s most of Central Kazan was covered by wooden buildings, usually consisting of two floors. There was a historical environment of Kazan citizens, but not the best place to live in.
During the Republican program "The liquidation of ramshackle apartments" most of them unlike other Russian cities , especially in Central Kazan, where the land is not cheap, were destroyed and their population was moved to new areas at the suburb of the city Azino, Azino-2, Quartal Nearly , citizens resettled by this programme.
Another significant building in central Kazan is the former "Smolentzev and Shmelev" tea house and hotel, now the Shalyapin Palace Hotel.
A major landmark of lateth and earlyth century commercial architecture, it consists of two portions. The original portion, built for a merchant named Usmanov in the s, was bought by the inter-related families of Efim Smolentzev and Pavel and Nikolai Shmelev in In , the Smolentevs and Shmelevs constructed another portion, designed by architect Vasili Trifonov, and operated a hotel there.
Temple of All Religions. There are also 49 music schools, 43 sports school, and 10 fine-arts schools, including the Kazan Art School founded in There are 44 institutes of higher education in Kazan, including 19 branches of universities from other cities.
More than , students are educated in the city. Some other prominent universities are:. Kazan is a major scientific centre in Russia. Kazan formed a big number of scientific areas and schools mathematical, chemical, medical, linguistic, geological, geobotanical, etc.
Scientific discoveries are a subject of special pride, including: Exactly at that time University Hospital was open. In Faculty of Medicine is separated from the Kazan Federal University and holds a lot of specialized hospitals under its patronage.
Nowadays Kazan becomes the largest public health center in Russia. Kazan Interregional clinical-diagnostic center is the largest in Volga region in cardiovascular and neurological diseases.
The largest hospital in Kazan is Republican Clinical Hospital. Kazan City Duma is a representative body of the city, elected every four years and holds its sessions in Kazan City Hall.
Executive committee is a municipal body of the executive organs. The official opening of the Kazan city telephone network took place on 27 15 November At the moment, there are four operators of wired telephone in Kazan.
The total capacity of the telephone network in Kazan is about , numbers. Services of IP-telephony operators in addition to the basic wired connection is also supported by the five companies.
By the number of Internet users— thousand people—Kazan takes the 4th place in Russia. Access to the World Wide Web in Kazan is provided by 15 operators.
Previously popular Dial-up has almost lost its position, at the same time actively developing wireless technology Wi-Fi and Wi-Max. Scartel launched the first LTE network in Russia.
Kazan now is one of the most developed cities in Russia in terms of sport. The city of Kazan is a leader in terms of winnings in various sports including its most popular sports teams.
Kazan is actively engaged in international activities. The city has foreign diplomatic, trade and cultural representations, the Kazan Kremlin and the Institute of culture of peace are under the auspices of UNESCO , the city participates in partner movements, is a member of the world organizations of cities.
The summit of the CIS heads, the Summit of the world security services and other important forums, conferences and events of the world level were held in Kazan.
The head of China , the us Secretary of state, about three dozen presidents and Prime Ministers of foreign States paid visits to the capital of the Republic, as to few other cities of the country.
Renovated in , the international airport provides flights to dozens of cities in different countries, including the largest Airliners class Boeing , and is gradually being rebuilt into a potential hub for the Universiade and the World Cup ; international rail links from the city.
Four consulates general are found in Kazan. Kazan is twinned with: Edit Read in another language Kazan. For other uses, see Kazan disambiguation.
City of republic significance . Left to right, top to bottom: History of Kazan and Timeline of Kazan. This section does not cite any sources.
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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Airplanes built by Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
Helicopter built by Kazan Helicopters. Public transit Edit Travel cards that work within the metropolitan area reduce the cost of travel to 15 rub on trolley buses and buses, and offer considerable discounts on the metro line.