Leprechaun [ˈlɛprəkɔːn] (irisch leipreachán, luprachán, lucharpán, lucharmán , lucharachán etc.), im deutschen Sprachgebrauch oft auch einfach Kobold, ist ein Wesen der irischen Mythologie und gehört zu den Naturgeistern, die oft in Verbindung mit dem verborgenen Gold am Ende des Regenbogens gebracht werden. Wo fröhliche Kobolde über sattgrüne Wiesen tanzen und ein Topf voll Gold am Ende des Regenbogens wartet – Mythologie in Irland. Luise Schmeier. Ich könnte darauf schwören, einen Kobold gesehen zu haben. So einen typischen – wie in den ganzen illustrierten Sagenbüchern. Grüne Kleidung Zuviel.
Sonar ASDIC in Britain allowed Allied warships to detect submerged U-boats and vice versa beyond visual range, but was not effective against a surfaced vessel; thus, early in the war, a U-boat at night or in bad weather was actually safer on the surface.
Advancements in radar became particularly deadly for the U-boat crews, especially once aircraft-mounted units were developed.
As a countermeasure, U-boats were fitted with radar warning receivers, to give them ample time to dive before the enemy closed in, as well as more anti aircraft guns.
However, by early to mid, the Allies switched to centimetric radar unknown to Germany , which rendered the radar detectors ineffective.
U-boat radar systems were also developed, but many captains chose not to use them for fear of broadcasting their position to enemy patrols and lack of sufficient electronic countermeasures.
Early on, the Germans experimented with the idea of the Schnorchel snorkel from captured Dutch submarines, but saw no need for them until rather late in the war.
The Schnorchel was a retractable pipe that supplied air to the diesel engines while submerged at periscope depth , allowing the boats to cruise and recharge their batteries while maintaining a degree of stealth.
It was far from a perfect solution, however. Waste disposal was a problem when the U-boats spent extended periods without surfacing, as it is today.
The Schnorchel also had the effect of making the boat essentially noisy and deaf in sonar terms. Finally, Allied radar eventually became sufficiently advanced that the Schnorchel mast could be detected beyond visual range.
The Germans also developed active countermeasures such as facilities to release artificial chemical bubble-making decoys, known as Bold , after the mythical kobold.
Advances in convoy tactics, high-frequency direction finding referred to as " Huff-Duff " , radar, active sonar called ASDIC in Britain , depth charges , ASW spigot mortars also known as "hedgehog" , the intermittent cracking of the German Naval Enigma code , the introduction of the Leigh light , the range of escort aircraft especially with the use of escort carriers , the use of mystery ships , and the full entry of the U.
At the same time, the Allies targeted the U-boat shipyards and their bases with strategic bombing. The British had a major advantage in their ability to read some German naval Enigma codes.
An understanding of the German coding methods had been brought to Britain via France from Polish code-breakers.
Thereafter, code books and equipment were captured by raids on German weather ships and from captured U-boats. A team including Alan Turing used special purpose " Bombes " and early computers to break new German codes as they were introduced.
The speedy decoding of messages was vital in directing convoys away from wolf packs and allowing interception and destruction of U-boats.
This was demonstrated when the Naval Enigma machines were altered in February and wolf-pack effectiveness greatly increased until the new code was broken.
U was also captured by the British in October ; three sailors boarded her as she was sinking, and desperately threw all the code books out of the submarine so as to salvage them.
Two of them, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and Lieutenant Francis Anthony Blair Fasson , continued to throw code books out of the ship as it went under water, and went down with it.
Further code books were captured by raids on weather ships. It is now a museum ship in Chicago at the Museum of Science and Industry.
Two events in the battle took place in when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers at Bell Island , Newfoundland.
When the submarine launched a torpedo at the loading pier, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II.
Of the U-boats surrendered, were scuttled in deep water off Lisahally , Northern Ireland, or Loch Ryan , Scotland, in late and early From , the West German Bundesmarine was allowed to have a small navy.
Because West Germany was initially restricted to a tonne displacement limit, the Bundesmarine focused on small coastal submarines to protect against the Soviet Union Russian threat in the Baltic Sea.
The Germans sought to use advanced technologies to offset the small displacement, such as amagnetic steel to protect against naval mines and magnetic anomaly detectors.
The initial Type was a failure because of hull cracking; the subsequent Type , first commissioned in , was a success, and 12 were built for the German navy.
Three of the improved Type boats were later sold to the Israeli Navy , becoming the Gal -class. The German Type diesel-electric submarine was the most popular export-sales submarine in the world from the late s into the first years of the 21st century.
With a larger 1,—1, tonne displacement, the class was very customizable and has seen service with 14 navies with 51 examples being built as of Germany has brought the U-boat name into the 21st century with the new Type The features an air-independent propulsion system using hydrogen fuel cells.
This system is safer than previous closed-cycle diesel engines and steam turbines, cheaper than a nuclear reactor and quieter than either.
While the Type is also being purchased by Italy, the Type has been designed as the follow-on export model and has been sold to Greece , South Korea and Turkey.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German submarine of the First or Second World War. This article is about German submarines.
For the bootloader, see Das U-Boot. For other uses, see U-boat disambiguation. Not to be confused with British U class submarine.
U-boat Campaign World War I. Battle of the Atlantic. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. In anderen Projekten Commons. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am.
Kinderschminken, Cowboy und Indianer. Kinderschminken, Dachs im Wald. Kinderschminken, Dackel mit treuen Augen. Kinderschminken, Dalmatiner und Cruella de Vil.
Dann war sie verschwunden. Kaum war er alt genug, hatte der Mann auf der ganzen Welt nach diesem Schatz geforscht. Es war ein wildes, abenteuerliches Leben gewesen, voller Ungeduld und Gier.
Doch den Schatz, nein, den hatte er nie gefunden. So lebte er dahin, bis eines Tages etwas geschah. Und da sah er es. Und das Ende des Regenbogen zeigte genau auf ihn.
Da kam ihm die Erleuchtung. Der Schatz am Ende des Regenbogens, das war er selber. Der alte Mann begann zu weinen. Dann trat er wieder heraus. Dann blickte er hoch und nahm wahr, dass der Himmel leuchtend blau war.
Bringt man ihn gegen sich auf, wird man auf die ein oder andere Weise Schaden nehmen. Davon darf man sich auf keinen Fall beirren lassen, denn einmal aus den Augen gelassen, ist er verschwunden.
Wichtig ist es, von ihm eine genaue Beschreibung des Verstecks zu fordern. Leprechauns haben in der irischen Mythologie einen festen Platz.
Aber auch im irischen Alltag begegnet Ihnen der kleine Kobold oft:. Zuvor war da nur eine vage Anziehung zu diesem Land mit seiner lebensfrohen Musik und lebendigen Kultur.
Written by Ina Brecheis.