Der Mexikanische Unabhängigkeitskrieg war der von bis dauernde bewaffnete Kampf der Mexikaner gegen die spanische Kolonialherrschaft. Die französische Intervention in Mexiko war eine Einmischung Frankreichs in die inneren Bereits am 8. Dezember traf eine spanische Flotte aus Kuba in Veracruz, Mexikos größtem Hafen am Golf, ein und landete Expeditionstruppen an. Spanien U (F) · C. Pina 16', 26'. Beendet. 0. 2. -. 1. 0. Estadio Charrúa. Mexiko U (F) · D. Castro 29'. UFrauen-WM • Finale. K.o.-Runde.
spanien mexiko - well, thatIm Vergleich zu den Kulturen des eurasischen Kontinents waren alle Staaten Zentralmexikos technologisch weit unterlegen; die Verarbeitung von Eisen, eine ausgearbeitete Schrift sowie der Einsatz des Rades zu Transportzwecken beispielsweise waren ihnen unbekannt. Der Erdölsektor nimmt eine zentrale Rolle für die mexikanische Wirtschaft ein. In Mexiko gibt es mehr als 70 Fluglinien. Die ohnehin schlechte Infrastruktur ist nach dem langen Krieg zerstört, die Silberbergwerke sind fast alle überflutet. Juni trat Kaiser Maximilian sein Amt in Mexiko an. Geschichte neuzeitlicher Staaten Nord- und Mittelamerikas. September mit einem Staatsstreich. Da die Überfahrten nach Amerika aber kaum von der spanischen Krone gefördert wurden, befanden sich um vermutlich lediglich rund Allerdings beschloss Francisco I. Am gleichen Tag brach der Chiapas-Konflikt aus, in dem die Zapatistas gegen Diskriminierung und die Auswirkungen der Globalisierung kämpfen. Die Stadt wurde daraufhin zwei Tage lang geplündert. Jedoch zwangen ihn schlechte Windverhältnisse und Schäden an seinen Schiffen bald ebenso zur Rückkehr. Es gibt insgesamt 16 indigene Sprachen mit mehr als Es gelang ihm, die unterschiedlichen Kräfte innerhalb der PNR zu vereinen, und sorgte dafür, dass die PNR im Stande war, die kommenden Jahrzehnte zu regieren, ohne in Gefahr zu geraten, abgewählt zu werden. Zahlreiche Freihandelsabkommen mit 43 Ländern ermöglichen hohe Exportquoten. Madero wurde in San Antonio Texas inhaftiert, aber sein Plan wurde durchgeführt. So nahm der Einfluss und die Macht der lokalen Caciques und der militärischen Caudillos ab, während Akteure, die sich loyal zu den staatlichen Institutionen und Regierenden stellten, ihre Position stärkten. Die zentralistischen Tendenzen förderten die Autonomie-Bestrebungen der englischsprachigen Kolonisten im zu Mexiko gehörenden Texas. Mexiko war das dritte lateinamerikanische Land nach Uruguay und Brasilien, das ein Wirtschafts- und Handelsabkommen mit der Europäischen Gemeinschaft abschloss. Landrechte wurde an Bauern abgetreten, Ausbau des Bildungssystem, drastische Senkung der Analphabetenrate und Verstaatlichung des Erdöls. Ein geheimes Telegramm Zimmermann-Depesche , mit dem der mexikanischen Regierung ein entsprechender Vorschlag unterbreitet werden sollte, wurde jedoch von den Briten abgefangen und trug zum Kriegseintritt der USA gegen das Deutsche Kaiserreich bei. Seitdem hat es wiederholte Zwischenfälle, unterbrochene Friedensgespräche und die Entwicklung autonom geführter Gebiete gegeben. Damit belegte Mexiko Platz 98 von Staaten. Juli, die Rückzahlung der Auslandsschulden ab sofort einzustellen.
De stad Tampico die toch echt in een tropische zone ligt krijgt gemiddeld eens per eeuw te maken met witte vlokken.
Orkanen In het orkaanseizoen dat duurt van juni tot en met november kunnen orkanen en tropische stormen huishouden op het schiereiland Yucatan waar populaire badplaatsen als Playa del Carmen en Cancun liggen.
Hoe groot de kans is dat je te maken krijgt met noodweer is moeilijk te voorspellen. Sommige seizoenen zijn er geen orkanen en is de totale stormactiviteit in dit deel van het Caribisch gebied laag en sommige jaren is het een aantal keren raak in dit gebied.
Ook de westelijke kustgebieden, langs de Noordoostelijke Stille Oceaan , heeft kans op orkanen. De activiteit is hier ook vrij groot, maar de meeste orkanen halen het land niet en zijn afgezwakt tot een tropische depressie voordat ze de kust van Mexico bereiken.
In een enkel geval kunnen plaatsen als Puerto Vallarta en Acapulco getroffen worden door een orkaan of tropische storm.
Hooggebergte Een groot deel van Mexico bestaat uit bergen. Slechts de kusten en het schiereiland Yucatan liggen lager dan meter beneden zeeniveau.
De Mexicaanse hoogvlakte, waar ook de hoofdstad Mexico City ligt, beslaat ongeveer een derde van het hele land en loopt in het noorden door in de Verenigde Staten.
Het noordelijke deel, met een gemiddelde hoogte van tot meter, heeft een koud steppeklimaat. Het zuidelijke deel met een gemiddelde hoogte van tot meter heeft een koud steppeklimaat dat in de hoger gelegen delen overgaat in landklimaten.
De Trans-Mexicaanse Vulkanengordel vormt de zuidgrens van de hoogvlakte en bestaat vooral uit vulkanen met een hoogte tot bijna 5,5 kilometer.
Dit gebied is ruw en bergachtig met weinig begroeiing, met uitzondering van de zuidelijke hellingen. Ten zuiden van de Mexicaanse hoogvlakte ligt de Zuidelijke Sierra Madre met een voornamelijk subtropisch klimaat.
Daarvoor zijn de verschillen gewoonweg te groot. De onderstaande cijfers zijn gemiddelde cijfers op basis van geregistreerde langjarige weer- en klimaat gegevens voor de Riviera Maya waar onder andere de toeristische steden Cancun en Playa del Carmen liggen.
Voor andere plaatsen in Mexico verwijzen we u naar de specifieke klimaatinfo voor de betreffende plaats of streek.
Hoe groot de kans op winters weer, extreme hitte of orkanen is vind je vaak niet terug in cijfers. Daarom bieden wij per maand handige extra klimaatinfo.
Voor overige plaatsen verwijzen we naar de specifieke klimaatinfo per plaats of streek. Aan alle gegevens op deze pagina kunnen geen rechten ontleend worden.
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Bekijk hier de weersverwachtingen. Mexico is ethnically diverse; with people of several ethnicities being united under a single national identity.
The large majority of Mexicans have historically been classified as " Mestizos ". In modern Mexican usage, the term mestizo is primarily a cultural identity rather than the racial identity it was during the colonial era, resulting in individuals with varying phenotypes being classified under the same identity, regardless of whether they are of mixed ancestry or not.
Many practice subsistence agriculture and regulate some internal issues under customary law. Similarly to Mestizo and Indigenous peoples, estimations for the percentage of European-descended Mexicans within the Mexican population vary considerably: The Afro-Mexican population 1,, individuals as of [update]  is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.
Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 9.
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians  began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire.
The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry. During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves.
The first census in Mexico then known as New Spain that included an ethnic classification was the census.
Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.
The total population ranged from 3,, to 6,, In recent times the Mexican government has decided to conduct new ethnic surveys and censuses, also widening the criteria to classify the ethnicities who were already considered such as the Indigenous Mexican one, which was previously reserved to people who lived in indigenous communities or spoke an indigenous language.
In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4. The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well.
The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages. Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.
It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels.
The s was marked by a religious conflict known as the Cristero War , in which many peasants encouraged by the clergy clashed with the federal government that had decided to enforce the constitutional laws of Among the measures contemplated by the Magna Carta were the suppression of the monastic orders and the cancellation of all religious worship.
The war ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict Catholic Church and State , by means of which the respective fields of action were defined.
Until the middle of the s, the Mexican constitution did not recognize the existence of any religious group. In , a law was enacted whereby the State granted them legal status as "religious associations".
This fact allowed the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See , to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity.
According to the figures of INEGI , most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics almost 93 million adherents according to the census of The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities.
In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities.
Migratory phenomena have led to the proliferation of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church.
According to Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.
There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new.
In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.
The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images.
In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages.
A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.
The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL.
Conflicts have also occurred in other areas of social life. This type of problem can only be solved with the intervention of the National Commission of Human Rights , and not always with favorable results for children.
The impact of the Catholic religion in Mexico has also caused a fusion of elements. Beyond churches and religious denominations, a phenomenon persists in Mexico that some anthropologists and sociologists call "popular religion", that is, religion as the practice and understanding of the people.
In Mexico, the main component is the Catholic religion, to which elements of other beliefs have been added, already of pre-Hispanic, African or Asian origin.
In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte.
The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the White Child and the adoration of God.
Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.
In the census 18, Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion ,  a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.
As of [update] , Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.
The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace.
Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i.
Amerindian element is the core. The painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. The cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old, and has been manifested in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.
Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec.
It is said that they were mainly indigenous painters led by friars who made them. For a time it was believed that the first European painter living in New Spain was Rodrigo de Cifuentes , an apocryphal artist who even came to be attributed works such as The Baptism of the Caciques de Tlaxcala , painting of the main altarpiece of the Convent of San Francisco in Tlaxcala.
Among the native painters was Marcos Aquino. The religiosity of the Novohispanos "New-spanish" made that the painting was important for the evangelization of the society, the friars realized the graphic skills of the natives, who enriched the baroque and mannerist style.
The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era.
Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art. The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.
Some of the most outstanding painters in the 21st century current painters: She studied painting in Beijing. Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar , painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas , a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy ; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara , and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.
Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico.
From the Spanish conquest, civil and religious sculpture is worked by indigenous artists, with guidance from teachers of the peninsula, so some pre-Hispanic features are shown.
Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism. Romanticism tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, as it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism.
The religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.
Between and the predominant themes were, successively: The transcendent was to introduce civil reasons, the first national types and glimpses of a current of self-expression.
The presence of the human being in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man.
The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced.
Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture.
The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies.
Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.
The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols.
The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations.
The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.
In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl.
In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship.
The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country. In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican.
This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution.
In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica.
Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.
Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.
Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars.
There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television.
Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture.
Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients.
Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.
With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.
The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.
Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico.
The current coat of arms of Mexico Spanish: It depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake.
Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U.
Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the federal republic in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation.
None at federal level [b]. Spanish and 68 Amerindian languages . Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology. Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Mexican War of Independence. A jaguar at the Chapultepec Zoo. The zoo is known for its success in breeding programs of threatened species.
Federal government of Mexico. Law enforcement in Mexico. Foreign relations of Mexico. Economic history of Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. History of science and technology in Mexico. Water supply and sanitation in Mexico.
Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico. Religion in Mexico census  Roman Catholicism.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved.
The art of the Colonial Mexico center of New Spain developed a large number of painters born in Mexico. Now these works are preserved in museums in many cities of Mexico.
A cultural expression starting in the s created by a group of intellectual Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution , reinforced by the Great Depression and the First World War.
Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico. The first chocolate version liquid was made by indigenous people in present-day Mexico, and was exported from Mexico to Europe after the Spanish conquest.
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