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Valleys of the Oka are covered in pine forests of the steppe type and the far south regions Serebryano-Prudsky and partially Serpukhovsky Districts are cultivated steppes with occasional lime and oak groves.
The intensive cutting of Moscow region forests in the 18—19th centuries reduced them and changed their species: There is almost no logging nowadays and the forests are being restored, especially around Moscow.
Swamps are prevalent in the eastern areas, such as Shatursky and Lukhovitsky Districts. The natural floodplain meadows are almost gone.
The number of native plant species is reduced, but some foreign species flourish, such as Canadian maple. The mammals of Moscow Oblast include badger , squirrel, beaver , otter , muskrat , stoat , Russian desman , raccoon dog , hedgehog, hare mountain and European , shrews common shrew , Eurasian pygmy shrew , lesser white-toothed shrew , Eurasian water shrew , etc.
At the borders there are occasional bears, lynxes and wolves. In the southern areas there are also speckled ground squirrel , dwarf hamster, great jerboa and beech marten.
Some areas contain stable populations of imported animals, such as flying squirrel , American mink and Siberian roe deer. In the oblast, there are more than a dozen kinds of bat and moth.
There are more than species of birds in the area with large numbers of crows, sparrows, ducks, magpies, woodpeckers, thrushes , grouses , bullfinches , nightingales , corncrakes , northern lapwings , white storks , grey herons , seagulls and grebes.
Over forty species are being hunted. Rivers and lakes of Moscow Oblast are rich in fish, such as ruff , carp , bream , bass , roaches , Chinese sleeper , perch and pike.
There are six species of reptiles: There is evidence for bog turtles in some areas. Amphibians are represented by 11 species including smooth newt , great crested newt , common toad , European green toad , common frog , moor frog , marsh frog , common spadefoot and European fire-bellied toad.
Insects are numerous, with bees alone accounting for more than species. The territory of what is now Moscow Oblast had been inhabited for more than twenty thousand years.
Numerous mounds and settlements from Iron Age were discovered there. Up to the 9—10th centuries, the Moskva River basin and adjacent lands were inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples.
Slavs populated the area only in the 10th century. In midth century, the lands became part of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.
Several important cities were founded around that time, including Volokolamsk , Moscow , Zvenigorod , and Dmitrov In the first half of the 13th century, the entire Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, including the Moscow area, was conquered by the Mongols.
In the 13th century, the land around Moscow was part of Grand Duchy of Moscow , which subsequently was the center of the unification of Russian lands, in particular the Mongol raids.
The southern part of Moscow Oblast was then part of the Principality of Ryazan ; it was attached to Moscow only in the In , Moscow Governorate was established by the decree of Peter the Great ; the area included most of the present Moscow Oblast.
The Battle of Borodino , which decided the outcome of the French invasion of Russia was fought in near Mozhaysk. Industries developed in Moscow Oblast in the 17—19th centuries.
The first railway in Russia was constructed in the Moscow Oblast in , connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg , and in the line to Nizhny Novgorod was opened.
The oblast was divided into ten okrugs and had the administrative center in Moscow. Parts of the then bulky Moscow Oblast were gradually transferred to other divisions.
In particular, twenty-six districts became part of Kalinin Oblast in January , and another seventy-seven districts were separated in September as Tula and Ryazan Oblasts.
According to the Constitution of Russia , adopted in December , Moscow Oblast is one of the 83 federal subjects of Russia.
In terms of industrial production, Moscow Oblast is second in Russia, after the city of Moscow. The industry of the Oblast relies on imported raw materials, strong scientific and technological base and highly skilled workforce; it is closely linked with the industry of Moscow.
Well developed are machinery and metalworking. Chemical industry of the Oblast produces acids Shchyolkovo , mineral fertilizers plants named "Phosphates" and "Mineral fertilizers" in Voskresensk , synthetic fibers Serpukhov and Klin , plastics Orekhovo-Zuyevo , varnishes and paints Sergiyev Posad, Odintsovsky paint factories , pharmaceuticals Staraya Kupavna.
There is a well-developed industry of construction materials with production of cement in Voskresensk and Kolomna Shchurovsky cement factory , earthenware, porcelain in the Likino-Dulyovo Dulevo Porcelain Factory and Verbilki and dry mortar plant in Krasnogorsk.
Ka "Alligator" by Kamov. Railcar Rail bus Metrovagonmash. The silk production in Naro-Fominsk had been stopped. Traditional and renowned crafts include Gzhel , Zhostovo painting and Fedoskino miniature.
Large foreign investment projects include the plant for manufacturing household appliances TV sets, washing machines, refrigerators, etc. In , Moscow Oblast consumed Major new energy project in the region is the construction of Zagorsk hydroelectric plant with the capacity of MW.
The deficit of energy is provided by powerlines connecting the region with Saint Petersburg, Volga Hydroelectric Station and other energy suppliers.
Agriculture has a relatively minor role in the economy of the Oblast. Agriculture is the least developed in the northern, eastern and western border regions.
Large areas are reserved for grains, especially wheat, barley , oats and rye , and significant role plays potato. Greenhouses are very common and Moskovsky city hosts the largest greenhouse complex in Europe.
Also grown are flowers and mushrooms. Livestock farming predominates over the crop, and is primarily aimed at the production of milk and meat.
In addition to cattle, commonly bred are pigs and chickens. The economic crisis of the s in Russia had severely affected the agriculture of Moscow Oblast.
In particular, in the s, as compared with —80s, the grain production has fallen by more than 3 times; potatoes by 2. Moscow Oblast has a dense transport network, including roads, railways and waterways along the largest rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
Land routes are radially diverging from Moscow and crossed by one railway and two highway rings. Neither railways nor roads, built for the most part many years ago, can cope with the steadily mounting traffic flows.
About half of the roads are overloaded and three quarters do not meet modern requirements. Insufficient width of the roads and frequent repairs cause traffic jams.
Moscow Oblast has the highest density of railways in Russia. Almost all railroads are electrified. The largest rail hubs are Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Bekasovo.
Major river ports are in Serpukhov and Kolomna. Also well-developed is pipeline transport. There are two major oil lines, two natural gas rings and numerous radial lines connecting Moscow with the largest gas producing regions of the country.
Moscow and Moscow Oblast have several international passenger airports , namely Sheremetyevo with two terminals , Vnukovo , Domodedovo and Ostafyevo.
There is also Bykovo Airport, which is used for freight. The largest military airport is Chkalovsky near Shchyolkovo which also processes some civilian passenger and cargo flights.
The highest executive organ is the Government of Moscow Oblast. Eighteen ministries act as the executive bodies of state authority. The Governor of the Moscow Oblast will be elected with the term of 5 years.
It consists of 50 deputies also serving a 5-year term. Andrei Vorobyov was appointed as acting governor and won a full term to the office in the elections.
Moscow Oblast has a high density of scientific research institutions, especially related to engineering and military technologies. Moscow Oblast hosts Mission Control Centers for spacecraft in Korolyov and military satellites Krasnoznamensk , as well as a number of test sites.
Zorky from Krasnogorsk has become national bandy champions three times. In the —18 season, Zorky is back in Super League , after one season in the second tier league.
Obukhovo is the only location in Russia without a Super League team which has a bandy venue with artificial ice. Although an indoor ice hockey-sized arena entered the plans instead, the official reason given was financial problems.
Moscow Oblast has numerous therapeutic and recreational facilities located mainly in western, northwestern and northern parts, and also near Moscow.
The region has the highest number over 1 million of dachas with associated individual gardens. Ecological situation in the Moscow Oblast is serious.
The areas adjacent to Moscow, and industrial zones in the east and south-east regions are heavily polluted. Most contamination originates from emissions from Kashira and Shatura Power Stations and disposal of household and industrial waste.
For example, the Timohovskaya dump is one of the largest in Europe; other objects of concern are aging oil storage tanks, and nuclear waste in the Sergiyevo-Posadsky District.
The most polluted rivers are Moscow, Oka and Klyazma. In the Moscow area and in major cities in particular, in Podolsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Serpukhov, Lukhovitsy and Stupino also heavily polluted are groundwaters.
After the population decline from 6,, as of the Census  to 6,, in the Census  the population of the oblast grew to 7,, Census. The three largest cities of the oblast are Balashikha , , Khimki , , and Podolsk , Among the urban-type settlements, the largest is Nakhabino 36, followed by Tomilino 30, The most intensive formation of towns occurred in — The youngest towns are Golitsyno and Kubinka.
They existed for quite some time, but were granted town status only in Some recent towns separated from the other towns, such as Yubileyny and Peresvet.
New projects have been announced at the beginning of the 21st century. One of them is Rublyovo-Arkhangelsk , which is designed for 30, inhabitants with high income and is called by the media the "city for millionaires".
The housing stock of the oblast is approximately million square meters. Almost all the houses are equipped with water supply, sewerage, gas,  central heating and hot water.
However, the telephone network is underdeveloped in rural areas. According to a survey  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about political and administrative region.
For urban geography, telecommunications and transport area, see Moscow metropolitan area. Grand Duchy of Moscow and Moscow Governorate.
Administrative divisions of Moscow Oblast. President of the Russian Federation. Gosstandart of the Russian Federation.
Die Slawen haben erst im Zu Mitte des Jahrhundert erlebte die Leichtindustrie, insbesondere die Textilindustrie einen Aufschwung.
Petersburg verband, und wurde die Bahnstrecke nach Nischni Nowgorod in Betrieb genommen. Schon einige Monate vorher am Er amtierte nur wenige Monate, bis er am 6.
November zum Verteidigungsminister ernannt wurde.
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